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Essential Tax Forms for Sole Proprietors: A Complete Guide 2024


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When you run your own business as the only owner, which is called a sole proprietorship, tax time can seem overwhelming. Unlike working for someone else, where taxes are usually taken from your paycheck when you’re the boss, you must figure out what tax forms to fill out and how to file them properly. This guide will walk you through the tax forms you need for a sole proprietorship and help explain what each one is for in plain language that’s easy to understand.

What is a Sole Proprietorship?

First things first: a sole proprietorship is the simplest business structure. It means that just one person owns the business and is responsible for its debts and obligations. No legal distinction between the owner and the business affects how you file your taxes.

Tax Filing Requirements for Sole Proprietors

As a sole proprietor, you report all business income and expenses on your tax return. Here’s what you need to know about filing your taxes, including which forms to use:
  • Form 1040: Individual Income Tax Return
Every individual in the U.S. who earns income over a certain threshold must file Form 1040 with the IRS. As a sole proprietor, this is where you’ll start. You’ll report your income, deductions, and credits on this form.
  • Schedule C (Form 1040): Profit or Loss from Business
Schedule C is attached to your Form 1040 and is specific to sole proprietors. On this form, you’ll detail your business’s income and expenses. The result will show whether your business made a profit or took a loss during the year. This includes:
  • Income: Money you earn from selling goods or services.
  • Expenses: Costs like rent, supplies, and advertising.
After filling out this form, you will know your business’s net profit or loss, which you will report on your Form 1040.
  • Schedule SE (Form 1040): Self-Employment Tax
If your business is profitable, you must also file Schedule SE, which calculates how much you owe in self-employment taxes. Self-employment taxes cover your required contributions to Social Security and Medicare. Generally, if your net earnings from self-employment are $400 or more, you need to file this form.
  • Form 1040-ES: Estimated Tax for Individuals
As a sole proprietor, you don’t have an employer to withhold taxes from your paycheck. Instead, you should make estimated tax payments throughout the year, where Form 1040-ES comes in. This form helps you calculate and pay your estimated taxes quarterly. It’s important because it helps avoid penalties for underpayment at the end of the tax year.

How to File Your Tax Forms

Filing your taxes as a sole proprietor can be done electronically or on paper, though e-filing is encouraged for its ease and quicker processing time.

Steps for Filing:

  1. Gather Your Documents: Before you start, make sure you have all your financial records from the year, including income and expenses, receipts, and any records of estimated tax payments you’ve made.
  2. Complete Schedule C: List all business income and expenses to calculate your net profit or loss. This will determine how much of your income is subject to self-employment taxes.
  3. Fill Out Schedule SE: If your Schedule C shows a profit of $400 or more, you’ll need to complete Schedule SE to figure out your self-employment tax.
  4. Prepare Form 1040: Include your income and deductions, plus your business profit or loss from Schedule C. Attach any other necessary schedules and forms.
  5. Calculate Estimated Taxes with Form 1040-ES (if applicable): If you need to make estimated payments, use this form to calculate how much you should pay each quarter.
  6. Submit Your Forms: File your forms with the IRS by the appropriate deadlines. For most individuals, this is April 15 for the previous year’s taxes.

Tips for Smooth Tax Filing

  • Keep Good Records: Maintain detailed and organized financial records. This makes it easier to fill out your forms and can be a lifesaver if you’re ever audited.
  • Know Your Deductions: Many business expenses can be deducted to lower your taxable income. Understand what deductions you’re eligible for to save on taxes.
  • Use Reliable Tax Software or a Professional: If you’re unsure about your tax situation, consider using tax software that guides you through filing. Alternatively, hiring a tax professional can ensure your taxes are done correctly and provide advice tailored to your situation.


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Filing taxes as a sole proprietor doesn’t have to be daunting. By understanding the forms you need and keeping good financial records throughout the year, you can tackle tax season confidently. Remember, paying attention to deadlines and making sure you’re withholding enough for taxes are crucial to avoiding surprises when you file. With some preparation and knowledge, you can handle your business taxes efficiently and accurately.

FAQs About Tax Forms for Sole Proprietorships

  • What is the difference between Schedule C and Schedule C-EZ?

    Schedule C-EZ is a simplified version of Schedule C for reporting business income and expenses. However, the IRS phased out Schedule C-EZ after the tax year 2019, so now all sole proprietors must use Schedule C to report their business income and expenses, regardless of the complexity of their business finances.

  • How do I handle home office deductions as a sole proprietor?

    If you use part of your home regularly and exclusively for business, you can deduct expenses related to the business use of your home. This includes portions of your utility bills, home insurance, mortgage interest, and property taxes. You can calculate this deduction using Form 8829, which is then reported on Schedule C.

  • What if I make a loss in my business? Can I deduct it?

    Yes, if your business expenses exceed your business income, you can report a loss on Schedule C. This loss can offset other income on your tax return, like wages or investment income, which might reduce your overall tax liability. However, there are rules about how and when to deduct losses, especially if your losses are recurrent over several years.

  • What tax forms do I need if I hire employees or independent contractors?

    If you hire employees, you must file Forms W-2 and W-3 to report wages paid and taxes withheld. You must also file Form 940 for federal unemployment tax (FUTA) and Form 941 or 944 for federal income and payroll taxes (FICA). If you hire independent contractors and pay them $600 or more during the tax year, you must file Form 1099-NEC to report those payments.

  • How can I make estimated tax payments?

    You can make estimated tax payments using Form 1040-ES. These payments are typically due on April 15, June 15, September 15 of the current year, and January 15 of the following year. Making these payments helps avoid penalties and interest for underpayment of taxes.

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